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What is Stereolithography (SLA) 3D Printing: Applications, Materials and Cost

Stereolithography, commonly known as SLA 3D printing, revolutionizes the way professionals approach manufacturing. This guide delves into the intricate world of SLA 3D printing, starting from its origins to the sophisticated processes that define its current state. As we explore the realm of SLA technology, you’ll gain an understanding not only of its mechanics but also of its vast applications across various industries.

Brief History and Evolution of SLA Technology

The journey of SLA 3D printing began in the early 1980s, pioneered by Chuck Hull, who introduced the concept of stereolithography. Hull not only invented the process but also coined the term and filed the first patent in 1986. This groundbreaking technology laid the groundwork for the field of additive manufacturing, sparking a revolution that would lead to the development of various methods.

What Is Stereolithography (SLA) 3D Printing?

Stereolithography (SLA) 3D Printing is a type of 3D printing technology that employs a vat polymerization technique.

Stereolithography utilizes a UV laser to cure photosensitive polymers in a liquid state within a resin tank, solidifying them one layer at a time to construct high-resolution, three-dimensional objects.

The SLA process excels in producing parts with smooth surfaces and intricate details, suitable for various applications from engineering resins to clear and flexible materials. Its capability to form tight tolerances and complex geometries makes SLA an essential technology in modern manufacturing.

When Was SLA 3D Printing Invented?

The inception of SLA 3D printing dates back to 1983, pioneered by Chuck Hull, who also founded 3D Systems Corporation.

Hull’s innovation was not only about creating three-dimensional parts by printing thin layers of an object, but also about transforming the design and manufacturing landscape dramatically.

He filed the foundational patent, titled “Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimensional Objects by Stereolithography” in 1986, which detailed the method of SLA and marked the beginning of what we now recognize as 3D printing technology.

This invention laid the groundwork for the development of a myriad of 3D printing and other stereolithography processes that followed.

How Does SLA 3D Printing Work?

SLA 3D printing operates on the principle of vat polymerization. A build platform dips into a resin tank filled with liquid photopolymer (thermoset polymers), a type of liquid resin that hardens upon exposure to specific wavelengths of ultraviolet light.

Below are the sequential steps that describe the SLA printing process from initiation to completion:

  1. Preparation:

Initially, the 3D model to be printed is digitally sliced into thin, horizontal layers and programmed into the SLA printer.

  1. Layer Formation:

The build platform lowers into the resin tank, positioning just millimeters above the bottom.

An ultraviolet (UV) laser, directed by galvanometers (mirror positioning devices), traces the first layer’s pattern onto the surface of the liquid resin, curing and solidifying it precisely.

  1. Peeling:

Once a layer is cured, the build platform moves up slightly to separate the newly formed layer from the bottom of the resin tank. This action is crucial to reduce the chances of the print adhering to the tank, allowing for a smooth continuation of the process.

  1. Recoating:

The resin tank tilts or a recoating blade moves across the surface, ensuring a thin layer of fresh resin covers the existing layer, ready for the next cycle of exposure.

  1. Building:

The process repeats, with the UV laser curing each subsequent layer. Each layer adheres to the one below, gradually building the 3D part from the bottom up.

  1. Post-Processing:

After the printing is complete, the 3D object is removed from the SLA machine. It is then washed with a solvent to remove any uncured resin on its surface.

Further post-curing in a UV light chamber may be required to fully solidify the resin into hardened plastic.

Key Technical Terms and Definitions

  • Vat Polymerization: A process where photopolymer resins are cured layer-by-layer to form solid objects.
  • Liquid Photopolymer Resin: The primary material used in SLA printing, known for its ability to final cure under UV light.
  • Ultraviolet Laser: The light source used to harden the resin. It is characterized by its precision in targeting and solidifying specific areas according to the 3D model, and such detailed features can only be achieved with better accuracy to print settings.
  • Galvanometers: Devices that control the direction of the laser beam, allowing it to trace patterns with high accuracy.

What Are the Components of an SLA 3D Printer?

SLA 3D printers, designed to harness the precision of stereolithography, consist of several key components that work in harmony to produce high-resolution parts. Below is a breakdown of these essential components:

  • Resin Tank: Holds the liquid resin that is selectively cured by the printer. It’s often equipped with a transparent bottom to allow the UV laser to pass through.
  • Build Platform: Where the 3D printed object is constructed layer by layer. It moves vertically as the printing process progresses, allowing each new layer of resin to be cured.
  • UV Laser System: The source of ultraviolet light that cures the resin. The laser’s precision is crucial for achieving the intricate details and smooth surfaces characteristic of SLA prints.
  • Galvanometers: These are mirrors controlled by galvo motors that direct the laser beam across the resin surface, tracing the object’s cross-section for each layer.
  • Recoating Blade or Wiper: After each layer is cured, this component moves across the surface of the build platform to even out the liquid resin, ensuring a consistent layer thickness and preparing for the next layer.
  • Control System: Typically involves a computer that directs the laser, build platform, and other components according to the digital model of the 3D object.

What Are the Technical Characteristics of SLA 3D Printing?

SLA 3D printing is renowned for its ability to produce parts with high dimensional accuracy and smooth surface finishes, making it an ideal choice for applications requiring fine details and a high-quality aesthetic.

Here are some of the unique technical characteristics:

  • Accuracy and Precision: SLA printers can achieve layer resolutions as fine as 25 microns, allowing for the production of parts with tight tolerances and intricate details.
  • Material Versatility: Compatible with a range of photopolymer resins, SLA printing can create parts that are robust, flexible, or even transparent. Each resin type offers different properties, such as high heat deflection temperature or biocompatibility, tailored to specific applications.
  • Surface Finish: One of the standout features of SLA printing is the smooth surface finish that can be achieved, often comparable to injection molded parts.
  • Speed: While dependent on the complexity and size of the print, SLA can be a rapid prototyping tool, especially for small parts with high detail requirements.
  • Post-Processing Requirements: SLA printed parts often require cleaning to remove any uncured resin and post-curing to reach their final mechanical properties and thermal properties, which can affect the overall workflow but results in superior material characteristics.

Printing Speed

SLA 3D printers typically operate at a printing speed of 25 mm/s. This rate can vary based on the intricacy of the part being printed and the specific settings chosen for the print job. The precise control of the UV laser allows for consistent curing times, contributing to the overall efficiency of the SLA printing process.

Layer Height

The achievable layer height in SLA 3D printing generally ranges between 25 and 100 microns. This variance in layer height allows for a balance between speed and detail:

  • 25 Microns: Offers extremely high resolution, suitable for parts requiring fine details such as intricate jewelry or dental applications.
  • 100 Microns: Provides faster printing times with slightly reduced detail, ideal for prototyping or parts where minute details are less critical.

Build Size/Volume

SLA 3D printers are available in a range of sizes to accommodate different production scales—from detailed prototypes to larger industrial components. The typical build sizes are:

  • Desktop Models: These printers generally offer a build volume of up to 145 x 145 x 175 mm, making them ideal for smaller projects that require high detail.
  • Industrial Models: For larger scale projects, industrial SLA printers provide a much greater build volume, typically up to 1500 x 750 x 500 mm. These are suited for creating large, complex parts or multiple smaller parts in a single print cycle.

Surface Finish Options

One of the standout features of SLA 3D printing is the exceptional surface finish it can achieve. The parts produced often exhibit:

  • Smooth Surface Finishes: Due to the precision of the UV laser and the nature of the photopolymer resin, SLA printers are able to produce parts with surfaces so smooth that they often require minimal post-processing. This quality is particularly beneficial for applications like mold making or parts that are visible in the final product.
  • High Detail Resolution: The layering process, combined with the ability to cure fine points with the laser, allows SLA printing to achieve details not possible with other 3D printing technologies.

What is the Dimensional Accuracy of SLA?

Dimensional accuracy in SLA 3D printing is notably high, making it ideal for applications that require tight tolerances and precise details. Typically, the dimensional accuracy of SLA printed parts ranges:

  • Tolerance Level: ±0.1 mm for most parts, depending on the configuration, orientation, and design of the print. This level of precision is achieved through the controlled photopolymerization process of UV light curing the resin, allowing for consistently reproducible results.


The resolution of SLA 3D printing refers to the smallest feature size it can reliably produce, which is directly influenced by the laser’s spot size and the reactivity of the resin. Resolution details include:

  • Feature Resolution: As low as 0.05 mm (50 microns), enabling the creation of very fine features.
  • Layer Thickness: Typically ranges from 25 to 100 microns, allowing for a smooth surface finish that is often comparable to injection molded parts. This range provides flexibility in balancing detail and build speed.


Warping occurs when parts of an object curl away from the build platform during the printing process, which can compromise the print’s final quality. This issue generally arises due to uneven cooling of the printed layers. In SLA printing, although less common than in other forms of 3D printing, warping can still occur due to the following reasons:

  • Improper Support: Inadequate support structures can lead to parts of the model that are not properly anchored, which might cause warping.
  • Resin Shrinkage: As the resin cures, it tends to shrink slightly. If the part geometry or the initial layers are not well-optimized, this shrinkage can lead to warping.

Layer Adhesion

Layer adhesion refers to how well consecutive layers of resin bond during the curing process. Good adhesion is crucial for building strong parts with high fidelity to the original design. Many factors affecting layer adhesion include:

  • Cure Time: Insufficient exposure to UV light can lead to under-cured layers that do not adhere well to each other.
  • Resin Composition: Different resins may have varying properties affecting how well they form bonds upon curing. Using the appropriate resin and settings is key to optimizing layer adhesion.

Infill and Shell Thickness

Infill and shell thickness are important parameters in 3D printing that affect the strength, weight, and print time of the final part. In SLA printing, these parameters are particularly crucial because they impact the part’s functionality and mechanical properties:

  • Shell Thickness: This is the thickness of the outer walls of the printed part. A thicker shell increases the part’s strength but also the use of resin and print time.
  • Infill Percentage: Unlike some other 3D printing technologies, SLA printing often uses a solid infill because the models are created from a vat of resin. However, for larger parts, varying the infill and creating hollow sections with escape holes for excess resin can be beneficial to manage resin usage and weight.

Support Material

Support structures are an integral part of SLA 3D printing, particularly when producing intricate designs or parts with overhangs that exceed a certain angle:

  • Purpose of Support Material: Supports prevent deformation and ensure the print does not collapse or warp during the printing process. They provide stability and anchor the part securely to the build platform.
  • Structure and Design: Supports in SLA printing are typically generated automatically by the slicing software. They must be strategically placed to effectively support the features of the part but also minimize contact with the model to reduce post-processing work.
  • Material Used: The same resin used for the part is generally used for support structures in SLA printing. This ensures uniformity in behavior during the printing and curing processes.

Post Processing Requirements

Post-processing is a crucial step in SLA 3D printing, involving several procedures to achieve the final part quality:

  • Cleaning: Immediately after printing, the parts need to be washed in a solvent (typically isopropyl alcohol) to remove any uncured resin from their surfaces.
  • Curing: Post-curing involves exposing the part to UV light to ensure that the resin fully cures, optimizing the mechanical properties of the print.
  • Support Removal: After curing, support structures must be carefully removed. This step requires precision to avoid damaging the actual part.
  • Surface Finishing: Depending on the application, additional processes such as sanding, painting, or sealing may be necessary to enhance the appearance and functionality of the printed objects.

What is the Type of Material Used in SLA 3D Printing?

Stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing utilizes a unique class of SLA materials known as liquid 3D printing resins, and these could be secondary materials like glass and ceramic. These liquid resins are photopolymers that cure (harden) upon exposure to a specific light source like an ultraviolet (UV) laser. This section details the common types of SLA resins and their properties, explaining why each is particularly suited for certain applications within the realm of additive manufacturing.

Common Resins Used in SLA 3D Printing

  1. Standard Resins

Properties: Balanced mechanical properties and high-resolution capabilities.

Applications: Ideal for general prototyping, concept models, and art projects due to its cost-effectiveness and good detail.

  1. Clear Resin

Properties: Similar to standard resin but offers high clarity and can be polished to achieve optical transparency.

Applications: Used for producing transparent parts like lenses and fluidics components.

  1. Tough Resins

Properties: Mimics the strength and durability of ABS plastic; highly resistant to high degrees of stress and strain.

Applications: Suitable for functional prototypes, snap-fit parts, and sturdy assemblies.

  1. Durable Resin

Properties: Exhibits high wear resistance and low friction, often compared to polypropylene (PP).

Applications: Ideal for parts requiring high impact resistance and ductility, such as hinges, bearings, and connectors.

  1. Flexible Resins

Properties: Provides pliability and low stiffness, capable of bending and stretching without breaking.

Applications: Flexible resin is perfect for parts that must withstand bending and compression, such as seals, gaskets, and cushioning.

  1. High Temp Resins

Properties: Best for applications requiring high thermal stability, with heat deflection temperatures of 238 – 300°C.

Applications: Suitable for molds, manifolds, and prototypes that require thermal testing, as it’s resistant to thermal expansion.

  1. Dental Resins

Applications: Used in the production of dental crowns, bridges, and orthodontic devices.

Properties: Biocompatible resins designed specifically for dental use, meeting stringent biocompatibility certifications.

  1. Castable Resins

Properties: Burns out cleanly without ash or residue, making it ideal for investment casting.

Applications: Commonly used for creating intricate jewelry and precision metal parts.

  1. Ceramic Filled Resins

Properties: Infused with ceramic to deliver stone-like finish and high temperature resistance.

Applications: Effective for detailed figurines, artistic sculptures, and heat-resistant components.

  1. Medical Grade Resins

Properties: Biocompatible and designed to meet medical industry standards for skin contact and implantation.

Applications: Used for surgical guides, research models, and prosthetics.

What Are The Advantages of SLA 3D Printing

SLA (Stereolithography) 3D printing offers several distinct advantages that make it a preferred choice for a variety of applications, from detailed prototypes to production parts and print process. Here are some of the main advantages and benefits:

  • High Resolution and Detail: SLA printing is capable of producing parts with extremely fine details and smooth surface finishes, thanks to its precision laser that cures liquid resin at the micron level.
  • Wide Range of Materials: Users can choose from a diverse array of resins, each offering many different types of properties such as toughness, flexibility, high temperature resistance, and biocompatibility, allowing for highly specialized applications.
  • Excellent Surface Finish: SLA parts typically have a much smoother finish compared to other 3D printing technologies, reducing the need for post-processing.
  • Precision: With high accuracy and low layer height, SLA is ideal for creating intricate designs and complex geometries with solid features that are difficult to achieve with other 3D printing methods.
  • Speed: For small to medium-sized parts, SLA can print relatively quickly compared to other techniques that require the same level of detail.
  • Versatility: SLA is used in a wide range of industries including medical, dental, automotive, and consumer products (like kitchen appliances), showcasing its adaptability.
  • Clear Parts Production: The availability of clear resins and the ability to achieve optical transparency with post-processing make SLA a great choice for creating lenses and other transparent components.
  • Isotropic Mechanical Properties: Unlike some 3D printing process that create anisotropic parts, SLA parts have isotropic properties, meaning they have uniform strength in all directions.

Limitations of SLA 3D Printing

While SLA 3D printing offers many benefits, it also comes with limitations that are important to consider:

  • Material Brittleness: Despite the variety of resins available, many SLA resins can be brittle and may not be suitable for mechanically demanding applications.
  • Support Structures: Most SLA prints require support structures that must be manually removed after printing, which can increase post-processing time and the potential for damaging the part.
  • Limited Build Size: Compared to some other 3D printing technologies, SLA printers typically have smaller build volumes, which may limit the size of parts that can be produced.
  • Cost of Materials: SLA resin is expensive, particularly heavily filled specialty materials, which might increase the overall cost of printing per part.
  • Maintenance and Operation: SLA printers require careful maintenance and operation, as the resin tanks and the laser system need regular cleaning and calibration to ensure optimal performance.

Applications of SLA 3D Printing in Various Industries

SLA (Stereolithography) 3D printing offers significant advantages across diverse industries, leveraging its ability to produce high-resolution and intricate parts swiftly and effectively. Here are key industries where SLA 3D printing is making a substantial impact, along with specific use-cases for each:

  1. Medical and Dental Industry

Custom Prosthetics: Tailor-made prosthetic limbs and components that offer improved comfort and fit.

Dental Aligners and Crowns: High precision in dental products that require a perfect fit.

Surgical Guides: Tools that aid in the precision of surgical interventions, enhancing outcomes.

Biocompatible Implants: Implants designed for long-term compatibility with human tissue.

  1. Jewelry Making

Complex Designs: Ability to produce intricate patterns and details that are difficult to achieve through traditional methods.

Rapid Prototyping: Quick production of design concepts for evaluation and early market testing.

Customization: Offers unique customization without the need for expensive tooling.

Castable Molds: Creation of detailed castable molds used in the investment casting of precious metals.

  1. Automotive Industry

Prototypes: Rapid prototyping of parts to test form, fit, and function within assemblies.

Lightweight Components: Production of complex, lightweight designs that reduce overall vehicle weight.

Custom Tools and Fixtures: Manufacturing of specific tools that are resistant to oils and coolants.

End-Use Parts: Limited run end-use components for customization and restoration.

  1. Consumer Goods

Electronics Housing: Prototypes for consumer electronics with precise dimensions and smooth finishes.

Wearable Technology: Custom-fit devices that require comfort and durability.

Home Decor Items: Custom decorative elements with unique designs.

Toys and Figures: Detailed models and figurines with high-quality finishes.

  1. Aerospace

Lightweight Components: Critical in an industry where weight reduction is paramount.

Wind Tunnel Models: Accurate models for aerodynamic testing.

Custom Tools and Jigs: Tools designed specifically for manufacturing or maintaining aircraft.

Prototyping Functional Parts: Testing components in prototypes before final production.

  1. Architecture

Scale Models: Detailed architectural models for presentations and client reviews.

Custom Design Elements: Unique components for modern building designs.

Historical Restoration: Replication of ornate elements in historical restoration projects.

  1. Education and Research

Anatomical Models: Detailed reproductions for medical training and research.

Robotics: Components for educational robots used in schools and universities.

Custom Lab Equipment: Tailored tools that meet specific research needs.

Prototyping New Products: For university research projects and innovations.

Products Created with SLA 3D Printing

Here is a list of some common products made using SLA 3D printing:

  • Dental Aligners and Retainers
  • Jewelry and Art
  • Medical Models and Surgical Guides
  • Prototypes for Consumer Electronics
  • Automotive Parts

Cost Analysis of SLA 3D Printing

Understanding the costs associated with SLA printing is crucial for businesses and individuals considering its adoption. Here, we discuss the typical expenses involved, from material costs to the price range of the printers themselves.

Typical Costs Associated with SLA Printing

  1. Material Costs:

Resins: SLA printers use a variety of resins, each tailored for specific properties and applications. Common resins include:

Standard Resin: Ranges from $50 to $150 per liter.

Engineering Resins: These can cost between $100 to $300 per liter, depending on the mechanical properties desired.

Specialty Resins (like biocompatible or castable): These can be more expensive, often exceeding $300 per liter.

  1. Printer Costs:

Desktop SLA Printers: Generally start around $3,000 and can go up to $10,000, suitable for small businesses or educational purposes.

Industrial SLA Machines: Prices can range from $10,000 to over $100,000, depending on the size, precision, and capabilities required for large-scale industrial applications.

Raise3D DF2 SLA Printer

A specific example within the realm of SLA printers is the Raise3D DF2. Priced at $4,999.00, it represents a mid-range option that balances cost with performance. The DF2 is designed for:

  • Small-Batch Production: It offers high precision and repeatability, which are critical for consistent production quality.
  • Engineering Prototyping: The printer is capable of handling a diverse selection of high-performance engineering resins, which is beneficial for developing functional prototypes and manufacturing aids.
  • Low-Volume Production: Its setup is ideal for producing limited quantities efficiently, reducing the need for large inventory and storage.

How to Design Effective 3D Models for SLA Printing

Designing for SLA (Stereolithography) 3D printing involves understanding the unique capabilities and limitations of the technology. Below are key considerations and actionable advice to ensure optimal outcomes when designing models specifically for SLA printing:

  • Wall Thickness: Ensure walls are thick enough to support the model during printing and post-processing. Minimum recommended thickness is typically 0.6 mm for small parts and up to 2 mm for larger parts.
  • Orientation: Position the model to minimize the area contacting the build platform to reduce the need for support structures and to maximize part strength along critical dimensions.
  • Supports: Design the model to minimize overhangs which require support; where supports are necessary, ensure easy removal without damaging the part.
  • Hollowing Out Large Parts: Consider hollowing out large solid parts to save resin and reduce post-curing time. Include drainage holes to allow uncured resin to escape.
  • Resolution and Detail: Take advantage of SLA’s high resolution by incorporating intricate details up to 0.1 mm in size, but be aware of the resin’s capabilities and the effect of curing on fine features.

How to Troubleshoot Common Issues in SLA 3D Printing

Even with careful setup and maintenance, issues can arise during SLA printing. Here’s how to troubleshoot some common problems:

  1. Warping: Occurs when parts peel away from the build platform or deform during printing.

Solution: Increase base layer exposure time, improve platform adhesion by recalibrating the build platform, or adjust the model orientation.

  1. Poor Layer Adhesion: When layers do not properly bond together, causing delamination or weak spots.

Solution: Ensure the resin tank is clean and the resin is properly mixed. Adjust the laser power and exposure times if necessary.

  1. Failed Prints: Complete failure or parts of the model failing to form.

Solution: Check the integrity of the support structures and increase the density or contact points with the model. Ensure the resin is not expired and is well stirred.

  1. Inaccurate Dimensions: Finished parts not matching the intended dimensions.

Solution: Calibrate the printer’s laser and fine-tune the curing settings for the specific type of resin being used.

How to Choose the Right SLA 3D Printer?

Selecting the right SLA (Stereolithography) 3D printer involves understanding the specific needs of your projects or business and matching those needs with the right equipment. Here’s an overview to guide you through choosing the best SLA printer, focusing on the differences between desktop and industrial models.

Desktop vs Industrial SLA Printers

Desktop SLA Printers


  • Fits comfortably in small spaces such as offices or classrooms.
  • Generally user-friendly, with simpler software and maintenance routines.
  • More affordable, making them accessible for hobbyists, small businesses, or educational purposes.
  • Typically limited to standard and some advanced resins.


  • High resolution sufficient for detailed models and prototypes.
  • Smaller build volumes suited for smaller parts.

Suitable Applications

  • Ideal for designers, architects, and developers who need to create detailed models and prototype parts.
  • Useful in educational settings for teaching design, engineering, and chemistry principles through hands-on learning.

Industrial SLA Printers


  • Accommodates large-scale models and high-volume printing.
  • Compatible with a wider range of specialized resins, including high-durability and biocompatible options.
  • Equipped with advanced lasers that offer finer details and higher accuracy.
  • Built to withstand heavy use in industrial environments.


  • Faster printing capabilities to support industrial production cycles.
  • Designed to produce parts that can be used directly in end-use applications or for functional testing.

Suitable Applications

  • Creation of jigs, fixtures, and other manufacturing tools.
  • Production of end-use parts that require high strength and precision.
  • Suitable for creating detailed medical implants and devices requiring strict standards.

Key Factors to Consider When Selecting an SLA Printer

When determining which SLA printer to purchase, consider the following critical factors:

  • Print Quality and Resolution: Look for printers that offer high resolution and precision, as these characteristics define the intricacy of the details and the smoothness of the surfaces in your prints.
  • Build Volume: Consider the size of the objects you intend to print. Desktop printers generally offer smaller build volumes suitable for prototypes and small parts, while industrial models provide larger spaces for bigger projects.
  • Material Compatibility: Ensure the printer supports the specific types of resin needed for your projects, whether standard, engineering, or specialty resins.
  • Ease of Use and Software: User-friendly interfaces and reliable software are crucial, especially for those new to 3D printing. Check if the software is compatible with your design platforms and how it handles file preparation and printing settings.
  • Reliability and Support: Opt for brands known for their reliability and customer support. Check for warranty terms and the availability of customer service in case of technical issues.
  • Price: Budget is always a concern, as SLA printers can vary greatly in cost. Desktop versions are generally more affordable, while industrial models are significantly more expensive but offer more features.
  • Maintenance and Operating Costs: Consider the long-term costs associated with the printer, including resin prices and the cost of replacement parts like the laser and the resin tank.

Comparing SLA with Other 3D Printing Technologies

When choosing a 3D printing technology, it’s essential to understand the differences and similarities between Stereolithography (SLA) and other popular methods such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Below, we present a comparative analysis to help discern which technology works for specific applications and materials.

SLA vs FDM: Understanding the Differences and Similarities




Aspect SLA FDM
Technology Uses a laser to cure liquid resin layer by layer. Melts and extrudes thermoplastic filament layer by layer.
Material Options Primarily uses photopolymer resins. Uses thermoplastic filaments like ABS, PLA, PETG.
Applications Ideal for highly detailed patterns (injection molding), jewelry, and dental applications. Best for functional prototypes, manufacturing tools.
Print Volume Generally smaller than FDM printers. Larger build volumes are common.
Surface Finish Produces high quality parts with a smooth finish and fine details. Parts may show layer lines; sanding may be needed for smoothness.
Cost Higher initial investment for the printer and materials. Generally lower cost for both printer and filament materials.

SLA vs DLP: Understanding the Differences and Similarities


  • SLA utilizes a single-point laser to cure photopolymer resin, which allows for precise control over the laser’s path, enabling intricate details and complex geometries.
  • DLP (Digital Light Processing) uses a digital projector screen to flash a single image of each layer all at once, making it faster than SLA when printing multiple objects simultaneously.


  • SLA is renowned for producing parts with high detail and smooth surface finishes due to the precision of the laser.
  • DLP also produces high-quality prints but may have limitations in achieving the fine details that an SLA printer can, due to the fixed resolution of the projector.


  • SLA is preferred for applications requiring high precision and intricate details, such as dental models, jewelry, and high-precision engineering components.
  • DLP is often used in applications where speed is more critical than ultra-fine detail, such as in the rapid prototyping of large numbers of models or parts with less complexity.

Preferred Method

SLA is the preferred method when absolute precision and detail are necessary, especially for complex designs where layer adhesion and surface smoothness are crucial.

SLA vs LCD (MSLA): Understanding the Differences and Similarities


  • SLA as mentioned uses a laser to cure the resin, which can be meticulously controlled for precision.
  • LCD (MSLA) employs an array of LEDs as a light source shining through an LCD screen that acts as a mask, which blocks light to non-curing areas of the resin.


  • SLA offers superior part resolution and surface finish due to the finer control over the laser’s small point size.
  • LCD technology typically has a larger pixel size, which can affect the ultimate resolution of the print, making it slightly less detailed compared to SLA.


  • SLA excels in producing highly detailed artistic or functional parts, medical models, and prototypes that require tight tolerances.
  • LCD printers are best suited for hobbyists and educators who need faster print times and are working within a more modest budget.

Preferred Method

  • SLA remains the preferred method for professional applications requiring the highest quality and precision. It is especially favored in the medical, dental, and jewelry industries.
  • LCD (liquid crystal display)

is often chosen for personal or educational use, where the balance of speed, cost, and quality is paramount.

SLA vs FFF: Understanding the Differences and Similarities


  • SLA utilizes ultraviolet (UV) laser to cure liquid resin in a process known as vat polymerization. It builds parts layer-by-layer from the bottom up by curing photopolymer resins that are sensitive to ultraviolet light.
  • FFF deploys a method where material is extruded through a heated nozzle, melted and laid down in layers to create an object. It builds from the ground up directly on a build platform.


  • SLA employs photopolymer resins which provide options ranging from flexible to rigid, transparent to opaque, and colored or colorless, catering to a variety of industrial applications due to their intricate detailing capabilities.
  • FFF uses thermoplastic filaments like ABS, PLA, and their composites which makes it suitable for prototyping and household projects due to the availability and cost-effectiveness of materials.


  • SLA is ideal for applications requiring high detail and smooth finishes such as dental work, jewelry, and highly detailed prototypes.
  • FFF is commonly used for more robust applications that require material durability such as functional household items, prototypes, and educational models.

Preferred Method

  • SLA is preferred when detail, accuracy, and surface finish are more critical than size and cost.
  • FFF is often chosen for its practicality in cost-sensitive environments and larger parts production.

What are Future Trends and Developments in SLA Technology?

SLA technology continues to evolve, pushing the boundaries of what can be achieved in various industries. Here are some emerging trends:

Emerging Materials

  • Development of New Resin Formulas: Enhanced properties such as increased durability, flexibility, and new aesthetic options like improved color vibrancy and transparency.
  • Composite Resins: These materials are being enhanced with additives like ceramics and metals to improve mechanical properties and expand possible applications.

Printer Advancements

  • Faster Print Times: Innovations such as advanced laser systems and light processing units that increase the speed without compromising the surface quality.
  • Larger Build Volumes: Although traditionally limited in build size, newer models are expanding the possible size of prints, making SLA more competitive with FFF in terms of scalability.

Potential Future Applications

  • Medical Field Expansion: With the ability to produce biocompatible materials, SLA is set to further revolutionize the medical and dental industry with custom prosthetics and complex surgical tools.
  • Automotive and Aerospace: As materials improve, SLA is finding a place in producing end-use parts that require high precision and advanced material properties.

Conclusion and Future Perspectives of SLA 3D Printing

Stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing, recognized for its superior resolution and smooth surface finishes, continues to be important in additive manufacturing. SLA technologies have advanced significantly from large, industrial systems, allowing for the creation of intricate and mechanically robust parts.

The future of SLA printing looks promising and advances in SLA printer technology will likely focus on increasing build volumes and print speed without sacrificing the quality and accuracy SLA is known for.